Gym Dictionary


This list is far from complete but it is a good start. It's [LIVE] because it is being updated and added to every day. If there are terms, slang or any other gym related terms that should be in here, I would appreciate a comment, so I can get it in here as soon as possible. Thanks for looking!

Abdominal Muscles
The muscles of the midsection: rectus abdominis, oblique (external, internal, and transverse), and intercostal. The abdominals help flex the torso forward and from side to side, twist the torso in relation to the hips, depress the rib cage, and stabilize the midsection during squats, deadlifts, and overhead lifts.
Abdominal Type
See Endomorph, Ectomorph or Mesomorph
Abduction
Movement of the straight legs, accomplished by contraction of the leg abductor muscles (the sarorius, primarily), from a fully abducted position back to one in which the legs are again pressed together.
Adductor Brevis Muscle
Adductor Brevis is the smallest and shortest of the three short adductor muscles. It originates on the pelvis and inserts into the thigh bone and adducts inwards and flexes the hip out forwards. It is most commonly injured in a groin strain.
Adductor Longus Muscle
Adductor Longus is the middle of the three short adductor muscles. It adducts the hip inwards and assists in hip flexion or moving the leg forwards. Originating on the ramus of the pelvis and inserts into the femur or thigh bone.
Adductor Magnus Muscle
Adductor Magnus is the largest groin muscle and is one of the two long adductor muscles (gracilis is the other). It is usually described as having two parts, hamstring and adductor parts. It adducts, flexes and internally rotates the hip.
Actin
A protein found in muscle fibers that acts with myosin to bring about contraction and relaxation.
Adenosine
A compound derived from nucleic acid, composed of adenine and a sugar, D - ribose. Adenosine is the major molecular component of the nucleotides adnosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate and of the nucleic acids deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid.
Adenosine Diphosphate
A product of the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate.
Adenosine monophosphate (AMP): An ester, composed of adenine, D - ribose, and phosphoric acid, that affects energy release in work done by a mucle.
Adenosine Phosphate
A compound consisting of the nucleotide adenosine attached through its ribose group to one, two, or three phosphoric acid molecules. Kinds of adenosine phosphate, all of which are inter convertible, are adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and adenosine triphosphate.
Adenosine Triphosphatase (ATPase)
An enzyme in skeletal muscle that catalyzes the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate to adenosine diphosphate and inorganic phosphate. Among various enzymes in this group associated with cell membranes and intracellular structures, mitochondrial ATPase is involved in obtaining energy for cellular metabolism, and myosin ATPase is involved in muscle contraction.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A compound consisting of the nucleotide adenosine attached through its ribose group to three phosphoric acid molecules. It serves to store energy in muscles, which is released when it is hydrolyzed to adenosine diphosphate.
Adrenal
Pertains to the adrenal or suparenal glands located atop the kidneys.
Adrenal Cortex
The outer and larger section of the adrenal gland, which produces mineralocorticoids, androgens, and glucocorticoids - hormones essential to homeostasis.
Adrenal Gland
Either of two secretory organs located on top of the kidneys and surrounded by the protective fat capsule of the kidneys. Each consists of two parts having independent functions: the cortex and the medulla. The adrenal cortex, in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary, secretes cortisol and androgens. Adrenal androgens serve as precursors that are converted by the liver to testosterone and estrogens. Renin from the kidney controls adrenal corticol production of aldosterone. The adrenal medulla manufactures the catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Adrenal Medulla
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Adrenal medulla cells secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Advanced Trainee
An individual with at least one year of steady, systematic resistance training experience.
Aerobic Exercise
Prolonged, moderate - intensity work that uses up oxygen at or below the level at which your cardiorespiratory system can replenish oxygen in the working muscles. Aerobic literally means "with oxygen", and the only type of exercise that burns body fat to meet its energy needs. Bodybuilders engage in aerobic workouts to develop additional heart / lung fitness, as well as to burn off excess body fat to achieve peak contest muscularity. Common aerobic activities include running, cycling, stair climbing, swimming, dancing, and walking. Depending on how vigorously you play them, most racket sports can also be aerobic exercise.
Amino Acids
Often called the "building blocks of life," amino acids are subunits that join together in sequences to form protein. Amino acids are named as such because they contain both an acid and an amine chemical side unit.
Anabolic
Chemical reaction in the body where smaller subunits are combined to form larger units. As an example, amino acids are joined together to form long polypeptide chains which in turn join to form strands of protein.
Anabolic Steroids
Prescription drugs that mimic male hormones, but without most of the androgenic side effects of actual testosterone. Many bodybuilders use these dangerous drugs to help increase muscle mass and strength, even though possession of them is now a felony in most states.
Anabolism
Constructive metabolism characterized by the conversion of simpler compounds into more complex ones.
Anaerobic Exercise
Exercise of much higher intensity than aerobic work, which uses up oxygen more quickly than the body can replenish it in the working muscles. Anaerobic exercise eventually builds up a significant oxygen debt that forces an athlete to terminate the exercise session rather quickly. Anaerobic exercise (the kind of exercise to which bodybuilding training belongs) burns up glycogen (muscle sugar) to supply its energy needs. Fast sprinting is a typical anaerobic form of exercise.
Anconeus Muscle
The Anconeus works alongside Triceps Brachii in extending the elbow. It also acts to pull the synovial membrane out of the way of the olecranon process when the elbow is extending.
Androgenic
Term used to describe one of the two primary categories of effects produced by such agents as anabolic steroids and testosterone. Androgenic effects include acne, increased facial hair, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics.
Ankle Collar
The ankle collar is a wide, leather ankle bracelet which you clip to pulleys to perform exercises such as left lifts, and leg curls. It is largely used for leg exercises.
Anorexia
Anorexia is a lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat. Anorexia may result from poorly prepared or unattractive food or surroundings, unfavorable company, or various physical and psychological cause.
Anorexia Nervosa
A disorder characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat, resulting in emaciation, amenorrhea, emotional disturbance concerning body image, and an abnormal fear of becoming obese. The condition is seen primarily in adolescents, predominantly in girls, and is usually associated with emotional stress or conflict, such as anxiety, irritation, anger and fear, which may accompany a major change in the person's life. Treatment consists of measures to improve nourishment, followed by therapy to overcome the underlying emotional conflicts.
Anorexiant
A drug or other agent that suppresses the appetite, such as amphetamine, phentermine, diethylpropion, fenfluramine, or dexfluramine.
Antagonistic
Pharmacological term used to describe a drug that blocks or shuts down a receptor, thus reducing or terminating a given biochemical response.
Antagonistic Muscle
One with the polar - opposite function of a primary muscle. As examples, the leg biceps are antagonistic to the quadriceps, the triceps antagonistic to the biceps, and forearm flexors antagonistic to the forearm extensors. Antagonistic muscle groups are frequently supersetted in a high - intensity workout.
Anterior
Used to describe the position of a structure when it is in front of another comparable structure, such as the anterior (or front) deltoid head.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Hormone produced by the posterior pituitary responsible for fluid and mineral conservation in the mammalian body. Bodybuilders often take ADH blockers to promote water loss in the days leading up to a bodybuilding competition.
Antioxidants
Group of substances reputed to neutralize harmful free radicals produced during cellular respiration.
Arm Blaster
Using an arm blaster is a very strict way to perform barbell (or E - Z bar) curls. Using an arm blaster promotes a similar effect as using a preacher bench. No elbow movement at all, and strict isolation of the biceps.
ATP
See Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Atrophy
Shrinking of the muscles caused by catabolism. The reverse of Hypertrophy

Balance
A term referring to an even relationship of body proportions in an individual's physique. Perfectly balanced physical proportions are a much sought after trait among competitive bodybuilders.
Ballistic Stretch
This involves dynamic muscle action where the muscles are stretched suddenly in a bouncing movement. For example, a ballistic stretch for the hamstrings might involve touching your toes repeatedly in rapid succession. The problem with this stretching technique is that rapid stretches invoke a powerful stretch receptor response that can result in injury. Further, after you do these exercises, the stretch receptors are overactive. This may lead to injury during an activity such as running or playing tennis.
Bar
The steel shaft that forms the basic part of a barbell or dumbbell. These bars are normally about one inch thick, and they are often encased in a revolving metal sleeve.
Barbell
Normally measuring between four and six feet in length, a barbell is the most basic piece of equipment used in weight training and bodybuilding. You can train every major muscle group using only a barbell. There are two major types of exercise where barbells are used
adjustable sets (in which you add or subtract plates to achieve the total weight desired), and fixed barbells (in which the plates are either welded or bolted in place and the total weight of the barbell is a set number). You may see fixed weights arranged by poundage in various gyms. The total weight of that barbell will likely be etched or painted on the plates. Fixed weights will save you the time of adjusting the weight in between sets. Adjustable weights are seen more commonly in home gyms, because it is very cost efficient to buy a bar, with several plates and clips to lock the weight in place.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Your body mass ratio, or the speed at which your resting body burns calories to provide for its basic survival needs. You can elevate your BMR and more easily achieve lean body mass through consistent exercise, and particularly through aerobic workouts.
Beginning Bodybuilder
An individual with less than six months of bodybuilding experience.
Bench
A wide variety of exercise benches are available for use in doing barbell and dumbbell exercises either lying or seated. The most common type of bench, a flat exercise bench, can be used for chest, shoulder, and arm movements. Incline and decline benches (which are set at various angles, normally between 30 to 45 degrees) also allow movements for the chest, shoulders, and arms. Adjustable benches are available for home gym use. They can be adjusted to flat, incline or decline angles.
Belts
Belts are supposed to aid you in a lift by taking pressure off the lower back when lifting very heavy weights. They will certainly help you if your goal is to develop power, and you attempt to achieve this through power lifting which consists of the three basic compound movements, squats, bench press, and dead lifting, all performed in a very low rep range. A weight belt will stabilize the upper body by increasing pressure in the abdominal cavity, and will reduce pressure in the lower back. Belts can offer a feeling of security and the knowledge that the chances of injury is lessened. However, belts are not necessary in all exercises. Stabilizing your upper body is simply not crucial for some lifts, and sporting a belt in those circumstances will not help you to achieve your goal to any greater degree. I recommend wearing a belt for big lifts, especially compound movements, done with heavy weights.
Biceps Brachii Muscle
The Biceps brachii crosses both the elbow and shoulder joints. Its action on the shoulder joint is very weak flexion. It supinates the forearm and is a strong flexor of the elbow. The bicep curl exercises is a common one to strengthen this muscle.
Biceps Femoris Muscle
Biceps Femoris is one of the three muscles which form the hamstring group forming the back of the thigh. The muscle is described as having a long head (the attachment from the ischium) and a short head (attached to the femur).
Biceps Machines
Biceps machines offer a variety of advantages to biceps training, and are advantageous to include in your workouts. With biceps machines, you can do heavy forced negatives. Your workout partner can press down on the weight as you resist during the downward part of the movement. You can get a longer range of motion, giving your more stretch and total contraction.
Biological Value (BV)
Scale of measurement used to determine what percentage of a give nutrient source is utilized by the body. The scale is most frequently applied to protein sources, particularly whey protein.
Biomechanics
The scientific study of body positions, or form, in sport. In bodybuilding, kinesiology studies body form when exercising with weights. When you have good biomechanics in a bodybuilding exercise, you will be safely placing maximum beneficial stress on your working muscles.
Blood Pressure
The pressure exerted against the inner blood - vessel walls during heart contractions (called systolic blood pressure) and heart relaxation (called diastolic blood pressure).
Body Composition
For bodybuilders, the amount they weigh is not important, but their body composition is. For example, a person may be 5'10 and 300 lbs, but if they are 40% body fat, these stats are not as impressive for the judging booth. Bodybuilders worry less about their weight and more about their body composition, which is defined as the ration between lean body mass (muscle, bone, and connective tissue), body fat, and water. Never be afraid to eat, though. One of the best ways to gain lean muscle mass is to eat a lot and let your body fat levels rise in order to do so. This said, don't let your bulking stage get out of control. It is essential that you keep your total body fat percentage close to what you would like it to be after your cutting stage. It is very difficult, if not impossible to gain muscle mass while simultaneously cutting body fat. Although they have said this is possible with the use of human growth hormone (HGH), it is really not essential. Be patient, muscles come in time.
Bodybuilder's High
Similarly to a runner's high, a pump can, according to some experts, cause a wide variety of hormonal responses, including the release of endorphins and enkephalins, which are natural painkillers produced in the body. Not to get into too much physiology or psychology, the pump can also elicit a pleasurable response in the pleasure center of the brain, which occurs overtime through the association of bodybuilding activity and the satisfying pump felt afterwards. The difference between being pumped up after a workout while in the gym, and waking up the next morning may be so significant that some people are shocked at the way they look when pumped up. Like any other positive outcome of bodybuilding, the pump will only occur if a number of other training factors are in place, such as proper nutrition and rest. One very easy way to determine if you are overtraining is if you notice you are no longer achieving the pump after your workouts. This can easily be noticed if you are familiar with the feeling associate with the pump. See also, Pump.
Bodybuilding
A type of weight training applied in conjunction with sound nutritional practices to alter the shape or form of one's body. Bodybuilding is a competitive sport nationally and internationally in both amateur and professional categories for men, women, and mixed pairs. However, a majority of individuals use bodybuilding methods merely to lose excess body fat or build up a thin body.
Body-Fat Percentage
The total percentage of fat weight in an individual's physique.
Brachialis Muscle
The Brachialis acts to flex the elbow whether in pronation or supination, along with Biceps Brachii. As Brachialis is attached to the Ulna, which cannot rotate, it is the only true flexor of the elbow.
Brachioradialis Muscle
The Brachioradialis muscle flexes the elbow and supinates the forearm from a pronated position and pronates from a supinated position.
Bulimia
An eating disorder which consists of compulsive overeating to the point of vomitting.

Cachexia
General ill health and malnutrition, marked by weakness and emaciation, usually associated with serious disease.
Calorie
The amount of energy necessary to raise one liter or water one degree celsius. A bodybuilder's maintenance level of calories can be calculated relatively easily, then either a caloric deficit (to lose body fat), or caloric surplus (to gain muscle mass) can be initiated. The calorie content of most foods are listed on the back of packaging.
Cambered Curling Bar
See E - Z Curl Bar
Carbohydrate
A molecule composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. It serves as the body's primary short - term fuel source.
Cardiac Muscle
A special type of striated muscle of the heart. Cardiac muscle is an exception among involuntary muscles, which are characteristically smooth. Its contractile fibers resemble those of skeletal muscles but are not as large in diameter. The connective tissue of cardiac muscle is sparser than that of skeletal muscle.
Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Physical fitness of the heart, circulatory system, and lungs indicative of good aerobic fitness.
Catabolic
Chemical reactions in the body where larger units are broken down into smaller subunits. As an example, muscle tissue may be broken down into protein strands which, in turn, may be cleaved into individual amino acids.
Cheating
A method of pushing a muscle to keep it working far past the point of temporary muscular failure. In cheating, you will use a self - administered body swing, jerk, or otherwise poor form once you have reached temporary muscular failure to take some pressure off the muscles being used primarily in the movement and allow them to continue for a few more reps. Word of advice
Save cheating for the last set of an exercise.
Chinning Bar
A horizontal bar attached high on the wall or gym ceiling on which you can do chins, hanging leg raises, and other movements for your upper body.
Cholesterol
A type of fat manufactured within the body but more often ingested from fatty animal - source foods like beef, pork, eggs, and milk products. Over the long term cholesterol can clog arteries and other blood vessels, leading to stroke or heart attack.
Circuit Training
A special form of bodybuilding through which you can simultaneously increase aerobic conditioning, muscle mass, and strength. In circuit training you will plan a series of 10 to 20 exercises in a circuit around the gym. The exercises chosen should stress all parts of the body. These movements are performed with an absolute minimum of rest between exercises. At the end of a circuit a rest interval of two to five minutes is taken before going through the circuit again. Three to give circuits would constitute a circuit - training program.
Clip
The clamp used to hold plates securely in place on a barbell or dumbbell bar. The cylindrical metal clamps are held in place on the bar by means of a set screw threaded through the collar and tightened securely against the bar. Inside collars keep the plates from sliding inward and injuring your hands, while outside collars keep plates from sliding off the barbell in the middle of an exercise.
Cocktailing
Slang term used by athletes to refer to the practice of taking as many different performance - enhancing drugs as possible.
Collar
See lip
Cool Down
If you've done a fast - paced workout, complete the workout with five minutes of slow aerobic activity. This cool down will give your pulse, blood pressure and breathing a chance to slow down. You can also end a weight training session with an easy set using a light weight, or some light stretching.
Compound Movements
Compound movements are any of a series of bodybuilding exercises which are very basic and nature, and in many cases increase the levels of growth hormone in the body. Basic examples of compound movements are deadlifts, squats, and the barbell bench press.
Concentric Contraction
When a muscle fiber develops sufficient tension to overcome a resistance so that the muscle visibly shortens and moves a body part against a resistance, it is said to be in concentric contraction. When you curl a dumbbell, the biceps muscle contracts concentrically. The resistance is the combined weight of the forearm and the dumbbell, and the source of resistance is the gravitational pull.
Creatine
An important nitrogenous compound produced by metabolic processes in the body. Combined with phosphorus, it forms high energy phosphate. In normal metabolic reactions the phosphorous is yielded to combine with a molecule of adenosine diphosphate to produce a molecule of very high energy adenosine triphosphate.
Creatine Kinase
An enzyme in muscle, brain, and other tissues that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate to creatine, producing adenosine diphosphate and phosphocreatine.
Cross Training
The participation in two or more sports that can improve performance in each and help achieve a higher level of fitness. For example, weight training and football.
Curved Short Bar
Some of these are U - shaped and some are V - shaped. Both of them are used frequently for triceps exercises, but other exercises are also possible with them.
Cut
A term used to denote a bodybuilder who has an extremely high degree of muscular definition due to a low degree of body fat.
Cut Up
See Cut

Definition
The absence of fat over clearly delineated muscle masses. Definition is often referred to as "muscularity", and a highly defined bodybuilder has so little body fat that very fine grooves of muscularity called "striations" will be clearly visible over each major muscle group.
Dehydration
Biological state where the body has insufficient water levels for proper functioning. As the human body is over 90 percent water, athletes must continuously replenish the water lost during intense exercise.
Deltoid Muscle
The deltoid muscle is used in all side lifting movements and any movement of the humerus on the scapula.
Density
Muscle hardness, which is also related to muscular definition. A bodybuilder can be well - defined and still have excess fat within each major muscle complex. But when has or she has muscle density, even this intramuscular fat has been eliminated. A combination of muscle mass and muscle density is highly prized among all competitive bodybuilders.
Dip
Word used to refer to the negative motion of a bench press exercise (intentional or otherwise). When an individual reaches the point of temporary muscular failure, the bar may "dip" (drop unintentionally) until the time at which the spotter realizes assistance is needed and helps the trainee raise the bar to the rack.
Dipping Bars
Parallel Bars set high enough above the floor to allow you to do dips between them, leg raises for your abdominals, and a variety of other exercises. Some gyms have dipping bars that are angled inward at one end; these can be used when changing your grip width on dips.
Dips
Dips are performed on an apparatus resembling two parallel bars, 3 to 4 feet high. This exercise is great for the chest and triceps.
Diuretics
Class of drugs used by athletes to decrease water conservation. Bodybuilders use diuretics to increase muscular definition and separation. Unfortunately, besides fluid loss, diuretics also flush life - sustaining electrolytes from the body.
Dorsiflexion
Moving the top of the foot upward and toward the shin.
Dumbbell
A dumbbell is a short handed barbell (usually 10 to 12 inches in length) intended primarily for use with one in each hand. Dumbbells are especially valuable when training the arms and shoulders but can be used to build up almost any muscle.

Eccentric Contraction
When a given resistance overcomes the muscle tension so that the muscle actually lengthens the muscle is said to be in eccentric contraction. Although the contracting muscle develops tension, it is overpowered by resistance. When you slowly lower a curled weight from the shoulder, the biceps muscle contracts eccentrically. If the biceps was relaxed, gravity would extend the elbow joint and lower the weight with considerable speed. Slowing the movement against resistance provides an additional muscle - developing factor.
Ectomorph
The ectomorph is the extreme somatotype. An ectomorph is characterized smalls bones and very little muscle mass. An ectomorph will have a very steep angle in his or her thorax, and the ribs are closer together. Ectomorphs are generally better endurance athletes than bodybuilders by nature, and may excel in cross country running. That is not to say an ectomorph cannot bodybuild. It is very possible to achieve great gains in mass and strength regardless of being an ectomorph.
Electrolytes
Charged atoms called ions which help regulate the body's various metabolic systems. Athletes regularly consume drinks enriched with electrolytes such as potassium, calcium, and sodium to replace those lost in sweat.
Electrostimulation
Muscle - stimulation technique involving the use of low voltage electric current. Although of limited use in physiotherapy, the technique's merits as an ergogenic aid are questionable.
Endocrine System
The network of ductless glands and other structures that elaborate and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream, affecting the function of specific target organs. Glands of the endocrine system include the thyroid and the parathyroid, the anterior pituitary, and the posterior pituitary, the pancreas, the suprarenal glands, and the gonads.
Endomorph
The endomorph is characterized by a round physique, carrying extra body fat. The endomorph is has a large bone structure, and has a good portion of muscle mass. The endomorph has a wide thorax (rib cage), which makes a large angle with his ribs. It is sometimes more difficult for an endomorph to keep weight down, but it is entirely possible that an endomorph make great gains with his or her training to the point where it may even seem as though his or her body type has completely changed!
Endurance
Stamina, or the ability to continue voluntary muscle contractions for a sustained period of time.
Erector Spinae Muscle
The erector spinae (sometimes known as sacrospinalis) is often described as a group of different muscles called iliocostalis, longissimus and spinalis.
Essential Amino Acids
The nine amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body and must be consumed in the diet.
Estrogen
One of the two primary sex hormones of the female body. The other one being progesterone. In males, excess testosterone is converted to estrogen often leading to the condition of gynecomastia.
Eversion
Turning the bottom of the foot toward the outside. For calf raises this hits the outer head of the gastrocnemius.
Exercise
Each individual movement (example, a seated pulley row, barbell curl, or seated calf raise) that you perform in your bodybuilding workouts.
Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Muscle
The extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle extends and abducts the wrist and is a weak extensor of the elbow.
Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Muscle
The extensor carpi radialis longus muscle extends and abducts the wrist and is a weak extensor of the elbow.
Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle
Extensor carpi ulnaris is located on the back (dorsum) of the forearm. It extends and adducts the wrist and weakly extends the elbow.
Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle
Extensor digitorum longus (often shortened to EDL) is found in the front of the lower leg, in the outer more muscle bound compartment.
Extensor Hallucis Longus Muscle
The extensor hallucis longus is the only muscle responaible for extending (pulling back) the big toe, dorsi flexes the ankle and weakly inverts the foot.
External Obliques Muscle
The obliques wrap around the trunk on each side to form our waists and join to the linea alba, a band of connective tissue running down the front of the abdomen.
E - Z Curl Bar
A special type of barbell used in many arm exercises, but particularly for standing E - Z bar curls wherein it removes from your wrists strain that might be present when doing the movement with a straight bar. An E - Z curl bar is occasionally called a cambered curling bar.

Failure
See Temporary Muscular Failure (TMF)
Fast-Twitch Muscle Fibers
White muscle fibers which contract quickly and powerfully, but not with great endurance. Fast - twitch fibers are developed by heavy, low - rep, explosive weight training.
Fat
A high energy molecule which provides the body with long - term fuel reserves. Fat also serves as a precursor for many hormones and offers the body varying degrees of insulation and cushioning.
FDA
United States Food and Drug Administration.
Flexibility
A suppleness of joints, muscle masses, and connective tissues which lets you move your limbs over an exaggerated range of motion. A valuable quality in bodybuilding training, it promotes optimum physical development. Flexibility can only be attained through systematic stretching training, which should form a cornerstone of your overall bodybuilding philosophy.
Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle
The flexor carpi radialis muscle flexes and abducts the wrist and is a weak flexor of the elbow.
Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle
The flexor carpi ulnaris muscle flexes and adducts the wrist as well as being a weak flexer of the elbow.
Flexor Digitorum Longus Muscle
Flexor Digitorum Longus causes the toes to grip and mold to the floors surface which is vital in maintaining balance on rough surfaces.
Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Muscle
The flexor digitorum superficialis muscle flexes or bends the fingers, flexes the wrist and is a weak flexor of the elbow.
Flexor Hallucis Longus Muscle
Flexor Hallucis Longus bends the big toe when you curl up your foot. It is called 'Hallucis' as the word Hallux means great or big toe in latin.
Flexor Pollicis Longus Muscle
The flexor pollicis longus muscle lfexes the thumb and wrist and is a weak flexor of the elbow.
Form
Form is expressed in terms of the quality of each repetition throughout the full range of motion. With good form, one should be able to reach the point of temporary muscular failure. Form involves moving the specified muscles involved in a particular exercise.
Free Weights
Barbells, dumbbells, and related equipment. Serious bodybuilders use a combination of free weights and such nautilus exercise machines such as the smith machine to incorporate a balanced training regime. Free weights are generally preferred, because they allow the stabilizer muscles to be used.

Gastrocnemius Muscle
Gastrocnemius muscle is a strong plantar flexor of the ankle and weakly flexes the knee.
Giant Sets
Series of four to six exercises done with little to no rest between movements and a rest interval of two to three minutes between sets. You can perform giant sets for either two antagonistic muscle groups or a single body part.
Gloves
Many bodybuilders have used gloves to improve their grip in certain exercise, as well as prevent callusing from occurring. Another method is chalk, which, when put on your hands, can also improve grip considerably. If you have sensitive skin, or for any other reason feel you would benefit from the use of gloves, then by all means invest in a pair, which should not run you any more than 10 dollars. If you do develop calluses, this will also toughen up your hands, and make the use of gloves non essential.
Gluconeogenesis
The formation of glycogen from fatty acids and proteins rather than carbohydrates.
Glucose
A simple sugar found in certain foods, especially fruits, and a major source of energy occurring in human and animal body fluids. Glucose, when ingested or produced by the digestive hydrolysis of double sugars and starches, is absorbed into the blood from the intestines. Excess glucose in circulation is normally polymerized and stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, which is depolymerized to glucose and liberated as needed.
Gluteal  Muscle
The 'Glutes' is an abbreviation of the gluteals - also known as the buttock muscles. The three main ones are the Gluteus Maximus, Medius and Minimus.
Gluteus Maximus Muscle
Gluteus Maximus is the largest and most superficial of the three gluteal muscles which forms the rounded shape of the buttocks.
Gluteus Medius Muscle
Gluteus Medius is an important muscle in controlling the level of the hips. Weaknesses in gluteus medius often result in a trendelenburg sign, an abnormal gait cycle.
Gluteus Minimus Muscle
This is the smallest of the three gluteal muscles. It abducts the hip and assists with internal rotation as the femur abducts.
Glycogen
Blood sugar stored in the muscles, liver, and to a lesser extent the bloodstream. Glycogen helps to fuel muscle contractions.
Glycogenesis
The biomechanical process by which glucose is converted into glycogen.
Glycogenolysis
The biomechanical process by which the liver converts stored glycogen back into glucose for use as a fuel.
Glycolysis
A series of enzymatically catalyzed reactions, occurring within cells, by which glucose and other sugars are broken down to yield lactic acid or pyruvic acid, releasing energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate. Aerobic glycolysis yields pyruvic acid in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic glycolysis yields lactic acid.
Gracilis Muscle
Gracilis is another muscle which works in conjunction with the groin muscles and is also a weak knee flexor.
Groin Muscles
The groin muscles are sometimes also call the 'adductor's. This describes the movement that they all perform. There are five adductors in total.
Growth Hormone
Peptide hormone secreted by the pituitary gland responsible for the repair and growth of tissues such as bones, muscles, and organs. In recent years, growth hormone has become one of the most popular agents used by professional bodybuilders.
Gynecomastia
Condition in males caused by an excess of testosterone or an excess of a testosterone-derived agent. When it becomes converted (aromatized) to estrogen the excess estrogen stimulates receptors in the nipple area leading to a swelling which resembles female breasts. The condition is commonly called "bitch tits". The condition is often severe enough to require surgery.

Hamstring Muscle
The hamstring muscles are found at the back of the thigh. They are three muscles which act on both the hip and knee joints.
Holistic Workouts
Sessions in which a broad spectrum of weight-rep combinations, ranging from heavy / low-rep work to light / high-rep training is followed.
Hormone
Chemical messenger released by an endocrine gland that travels to a target organ and produces a given response. Hormones may be steroid or peptide in nature. Secretion of hormones by the endocrine gland is regulated by other hormones, by neurotransmitters, and by a negative - feedback system in which an excess of target organ activity signals a decreased need for the stimulating hormone.
Horse Shoe
The horse shoe is an individual hand grip you can use to perform exercises such as one - handed cable curls, and one - handed triceps pressdowns. This can also be used for other body parts, such as back (one - handed cable rows), and shoulders (cable lateral raises).
Hyperplasia
The theoretical ability of a single muscle fiber to split into two fibers.
Hypertrophy
The scientific term denoting an increase in muscle mass and an improvement in relative muscular strength. Hypertrophy is induced by placing an "overload" on the working muscles with various techniques during a bodybuilding workout.

IFBB
The International Federation of Bodybuilders. Founded in 1946 by bodybuilding moguls Joe and Ben Weider. With approximately 150 participating nations, the IFBB proves that bodybuilding is one of the most popular of all sports internationally. Through its member national federations, the IFBB oversees competition in each nation. It directly administers amateur and professional competitions for men and women, as well as mixed pairs, internationally.
Iliopsoas Muscle
A powerful hip flexor, also assists in externally rotating the femur.
Infraspinatus Muscle
Infraspinatus is one of the rotator cuff muscles. It sits on the back of the shoulder blade, below the spine of the scapula and attaches to the greater tuberosity on the humerus.
Insulin
Hormone produced by the pancreas which controls the blood's level of glucose and amino acids.
Intensity
The relative degree of effort you put into each set of every exercise in a bodybuilding workout. The more intensity you place on a working muscle, the more quickly it will increase in hypertrophy. The most basic methods of increasing intensity are to use heavier weights in good form on each exercise, do more reps with a set weight, or perform a consistent number of sets and reps with a particular weight in a movement, but progressively reducing the length of the rest interval between each set.
Intermediate Bodybuilder
A bodybuilder with six to 12 months of bodybuilding experience.
Intermediate Type
See Mesomorph
Internal Obliques Muscle
The internal obliques wrap around the waist and insert into the linea alba, a cord like strip of connective tissue running down the centre of the abdomen.
Inversion
Turning the bottom of the foot toward the inside. For calf raises this hits the inner head of the gastrocnemius.
Involuntary Muscle
See Smooth Muscle
Isolation Exercise
In contrast to a basic exercise, an isolation movement stresses a single muscle group (or sometimes just part of a single muscle) in relative isolation from the remainder of the body. Isolation exercises are good for shaping and defining various muscle groups. For your thighs, squats would be a typical basic movement, while leg extensions would be the equivalent isolation exercise.
Isokinetic Contraction
Isokinetic contractions can refer to either a concentric or eccentric contraction. Isokinetic contraction occurs at a set speed against a force of maximal resistance produced at all points in the range of motion. This contraction type is performed under controlled same - speed conditions.
Isometric Contraction
Isometric contraction is a muscular contraction not accompanied by movement of the joint. The muscle is neither lengthened nor shortened but tension changes can be measured. Due to the lack of visible muscle shortening, there is no movement of the actins. The term "dynamic tension" was used by Charles Atlas to refer to this term.
Isotonic Contraction
In an isotonic contraction, the tension within the muscle remains the same throughout the motion, which is to say the force of the contraction remains constant. This is also called the positive portion of an exercise movement. There are two aspects of isotonic contraction, concentric, and eccentric. Concentric contraction occurs when the muscle fibers shorten as tension develops. At the onset of the movement, the actin and myosin filaments have tremendous pulling force. Thus you will be stronger in the initial phase of most movements. Toward the end or near the peak of contraction, the ability of the filaments to slide toward each other reaches a limit and strength weakens. An eccentric contraction is the type of muscle contraction that involves lengthening the muscle fibers, such as when a weight is lowered through a range of motion. The muscle yields to the resistance, allowing itself to be stretched. Here the actin and myosin slide away from each other. The level of force generated is much higher in the eccentric phase as opposed to the concentric phase. This is due to the added friction in the eccentric portion. Concentric aspect is a form of muscle contraction that occurs when muscle fibers shorten as tension develops. Eccentric aspect is a contraction that involves lengthening the muscle fibers, such as when a weight is lowered through a range of motion. The muscle yields to the resistance, allowing itself to be stretched. This is the age of the focused eccentric contraction. Too often bodybuilders focus their attention only on the positive motion (concentric) and pay little attention to the negative motion (eccentric). It is a matter of common sense to perform the lowering of resistance with at least as much focus and effort given to lifting the same weight.

Juice
A slang term referring to anabolic steroids.

Ketosis
Ketosis is the result of eating too little carbohydrate. Being in ketosis tends to reduce your feelings of hunger. Carbohydrate deprivation also causes dehydration. However, there is a distinction between losing water and losing body fat, although the two are sometimes confused. If your visit your doctor or pharmacist they can test for ketosis. If upon testing for ketosis, you realize that your body is deficit of carbohydrates, be sure to increase the total intake of carbohydrates in your diet; do not let your body go into a state of ketosis.

Lactic Acid
A product given off during aerobic respiration. Lactic acid was once thought to be strictly a waste product, however, recent evidence suggests that a version of lactic acid called lactate is used by the liver to replenish glycogen supplies.
Latissimus Dorsi Muscle
The Latissimus dorsi muscle is one of the largest in the body. It is a powerful extensor muscle of the arm and is used extensively in chinning and climbing.
Layoff
Most bodybuilders take a one to two week layoff from bodybuilding training from time to time. During this time, no exercise is done whatsoever. A layoff after a period of intense precompetition training is particularly benegicial as a means of allowing the body to completely rest, recuperate, and heal any minor training injuries that might have cropped up during the peaking cycle.
Lean Body Mass
That part of the body including the muscles, bones, and connective tissue which remains when all body fat has been eliminated from the physique (It is not possible to maintain a 0 percent body fat percentage, however).
Levator Scapulae Muscle
Shrugging the shoulders (scapula elevation) requires the use of levator scapulae and Trapezius.
Ligament
The tough connective tissue that strengthens, supports and limits the movement of bones that form joints.
Lipolysis
The breakdown or destruction of lipids of fats.
Lipolytic
The chemical breakdown of fat.
Log
See Weight Training Log
Long Bar
These bars are commonly used in exercises for the back, such as lat pulldowns. The advantage of the long bar is that you can adjust the width depending on how you would like to work the exercises.

Masculinization
General term used to describe the host of side effects experienced by female users of anabolic steroids. Common effects include deepening of the voice, facial hair growth, and clitoral enlargement.
Mass
The relative size of each muscle group, or of the entire physique. As long as you also have a high degree of muscularity and good balance of physical proportions, muscle mass is a highly prized quality among competitive bodybuilders.
Megadosing
The practice of taking athletic drugs and supplements in dosages far beyond those needed to obtain a desired effect.
Mesomorph
The mesomorph body type has a medium sized bone structure, and makes gains in muscle mass much more quickly than the other two types. He responds quickly to planned exercise and to dietary discipline
Metabolic Optimizer
General term used to describe any supplement that boosts an athlete's recovery system. Most metabolic optimizers contain a substance that is reputed to offer some degree of performance enhancement.
Metabolism
The sum total of all biochemical reactions that take place in the human body. Metabolism can be divided into anabolism and catabolism, the sum total which determines whether an individual gains or loses weight.
Mineral
A naturally occurring inorganic element used for the regulation of metabolism.
Multifidus Muscle
Multifidus is a series of small muscles which travel up the length of the spine. It is an important muscle in the rehabilitation of Gilmore's Groin and lower back pain.
Muscle Contraction
Any of five types of movement caused by muscular work. See
Isometric Contraction, Concentric Contraction, Eccentric Contraction, Isotonic Contraction, and Isokinetic Contraction.
Muscle Atrophy
See Atrophy
Muscle Dysmorphia
Muscle Dysmorphia is a newly diagnosed disorder characterized by a prolonged period of almost continuous eating, resulting in hypertrophy of the limbs and interrupted by bodybuilding training in the gym. Those who suffer from muscle dysmorphia always see their body as being too small, no matter how much weight they can, or how large their muscles become. The sufferer lives in a constant fear of being too small.
Muscle Hypertrophy
See Hypertrophy
Muscularity
An alternative term for definition or cuts.
Myofibril
An individual muscle fiber formed by muscle cells being attached end to end.

Nautilus
A brand of exercise machine in common use in large gyms. Used when bodybuilders want to add variety to their workouts. For example, doing front squats on a Nautilus squat machine as opposed to free weight squats for a workout.
Negative (Rep)
The downward half of a repetition, also known as the eccentric contraction. By placing resistance on the negative half of the movement, you can induce a high degree of muscular hypertrophy.
Nitrogen
A gaseous, nonmetallic element. Nitrogen is a component of all proteins. Nitrogen is essential to the synthesis of proteins the body must have, particularly nitrogen - containing compounds or amino acids derived directly or indirectly from plant food. The process of protein metabolism accounts for nitrogen balance. When protein catabolism exceeds protein anabolism, a negative nitrogen balance exists in the body. When protein anabolism exceeds protein catabolism, a positive nitrogen balance exists in the body.
NPC
The National Physique Committee, Inc., which administers men's and women's amateur bodybuilding competitions in the United States. THe NPC National Champions in each weight class are annually sent abroad to compete in the IFBB World Championships.
Nutrition
The applied science of eating for greater health, fitness, and muscular gains. Through correct application of nutritional practices you can selectively add muscle mass to your physique, or lose body fat, revealing your full genetic potential, and achieving a very self gratifying goal.

Olympian
A term reserved for use when referring only to a bodybuilder who has competed in the Mr. Olympia or Ms. Olympia competitions. Not to be confused with the more common meaning of the term, which refers to those athletes who have competed in the Olympic games.
Olympic Barbell
A special type of barbell used in weight - lifting and power - lifting competitions, but also used by bodybuilders in heavy basic exercises such as bench press, squat and deadlifting (the three basic powerlifting movements, which can also be incorporated into bodybuilding). Each bar weighs 45 lbs (20 kg). The collars used in powerlifting and weightlifting weigh 5.5 lbs (2.5 kg). Collars at your gym may vary in weight, however.
Olympic Lifting
The type of weight lifting contested at the Olympic Games every four years, as well as at national and international competitions each year. The two lifts (the snatch and the clean - and - jerk) are contested in a wide variety of weight classes.
Overload
The amount of weight that you force a muscle to use that is over and above its normal strength ability. Applying an overload to a muscle forces it to increase in hypertrophy.
Overtraining
Chronically exceeding the body's recovery ability by doing too lengthy and . or too frequent workouts. Chronic overtraining can lead to injuries, infectious illness and worse
a cessation or even regression in gains of a muscle mass, tone, and strength.
Ovo-vegetarian
A diet excluding all meat and dairy products except eggs.

Passive Stretch
A partner assists you in moving joints through their ranges of motion. You can achieve a greater range of motion passively than you can statically. However, because you are not controlling the movement, there is a greater risk of injury. Passive stretching is a valuable technique but should only be used by experienced people who thoroughly understand the technique. There must also be good communication between the people performing and receiving the passive stretches.
Peak
The absolute Zenith of competitive condition achieved by a bodybuilder. To peak out optimally for a bodybuilding show, you must intelligently combine bodybuilding training, aerobic workouts, diet, mental conditioning, tanning, and a large number of other preparatory factors.
Peaking
See Peak
Pectineus Muscle
Pectineus is positioned between the Iliopsoas and Adductor Longus muscles and is part of the short adductor group with adductors brevis and longus.
Pectoralis Major Muscle
Pectoralis major is the largest and most superficial of the chest muscles, Its action depends on the position of the arm.
Pectoralis minor Muscle
The Pectoralis Minor muscle is the smallest of the two pectoral (chest) muscles. It works together with Serratus anterior which protracts and rotates the scapula upwards.
Peroneus Brevis Muscle
Peroneus Brevis everts (turn outwards) the foot and plantar flex the ankle.
Peroneus Longus Muscle
Peroneus Longus is one of the peroneals muscle group which pass down the outside of the lower leg and evert (turn out) the foot.
Pesco-vegetarian
A diet including dairy products, eggs and fish, but excluding fowl and red meat.
Piriformis Muscle
The Piriformis muscle is an important muscle. The sciatic nerve passes underneath this muscle on its route down to the posterior thigh.
Placebo Effect
Pharmacological term used to describe the effects produced by an intert (inactive) substance. Often called "mind over matter", the placebo effect is used to explain the positive actions of many supplements which are in many cases nothing more than nutrients.
Plantar Flexion
Moving the top of the foot away from the shin, that is, pointing the toes down, as in heel raises.
Plates
The flat discs placed on the ends of the barbell and dumbbell bars to increase the weight of the apparatus. Although some plates are made from vinyl - covered concrete, the best and most durable plates are manufactured from metal.
Popliteus Muscle
Popliteus is a small muscle which is often described as the key of the knee joint. It unlocks the knee joint by rotating the femur at the beginning of knee flexion to allow full knee flexion to occur.
Pose
Each individual stance that a bodybuilder does onstage in order to highlight his or her muscular development.
Posedown
A forth round of judging conducted at the evening show in which the top six competitors are compared in their own choices of poses for a few, final, vital placing points.
Posing Routine
The well - choreographed series of individual poses a bodybuilder presents to his or her choice of music in the public presentation (Round Three) of the NPC / IFBB judging system. In this posing routine the competitor can choose individual poses, as opposed to the required poses done in the manadatory round at the prejudging, and thereby camouflaging weak points and emphasizing particularly well - developed areas.
Positive Nitrogen Balance
Biochemical state where nitrogen levels are sufficiently high enough to allow protein synthesis to occur. Positive nitrogen balance is one of the conditions accelerated by the use of anabolic steroids.
Posterior
Used to describe the position of a structure when it is behind another comparable structure, as the posterior (or rear) head of the deltoid.
Poundage
The amount of weight that you use in an exercise, whether that weight is on a barbell, dumbbell, or exercise machine.
Power
In bodybuilding and power lifting, this is strength, of the ability to use very heavy poundages on all basic movements. In a sports context, power is the ability to move heavy weights explosively.
Power Lifting
A second form of competitive weight lifting (not contested at the Olympics, however) featuring three lifts, the squat, the bench press, and the deadlift. Power lifting is contested both nationally and internationally in a wide variety of weight and age classes for both men and women.
Power Rack
A power rack is a safety apparatus that has two thick adjustable steel pins that the barbell rests upon. Bodybuilders and powerlifters use the power rack to perform squats, shrugs, deadlifts and presses.
Pre-Exhaustion
A technique used primarily on torso-muscle groups (chest, back, shoulders) which makes the weaker arm muscles temporarily stronger than normal, so basic exercises like bench press, lat machine pulldowns, and standing barbell presses can be pushed far past the point at which a bodybuilder would fail to continue a set. Preex involves supersetting an isolation exercise for a particular torso muscle (for example, flat bench flyes for the pecotral muscles) with a basic movement (for example, bench presses) for the same muscle.
Pre-judging
Judging of the first two rounds of the IFBB judging system during a morning or afternoon session separate from the evening public presenation at which Round Three is judged.
Progression
The act of gradually adding the amount of resistance that you use in each exercise. Without consistent progression in your workouts, you won't overload your muscles sufficiently to promote optimum increases in hypertrophy.
Pronation
You pronate your hand when you turn the palm down.
Pronator Quadratus Muscle
Pronator Quadratus works in conjunction with Triceps Brachii during pronation with elbow extension.
Pronator Teres Muscle
Pronator Teres works the hardest when the elbow is flexing and the hand simultaneously pronating.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
PNF techniques are used to improve strength and flexibility. The technique attempts to use reflexes initiated by muscle and joint receptors to cause greater training effects. The most popular PNF stretching technique is the contract - relax stretching method. The muscle is actively contracted before it is stretched. Static stretching is generally preferred over PNF.
Protein
General term used to describe molecules composed of specific sequences of amino acids. Protein is the body's primary building material and while small amounts can be manufactured, most must be consumed in the diet.
Protein Drinks
Another option to maintain your total protein intake for the day is to take the product in liquid form. The most common are protein drinks available in small bottles, generally 500 ml or less. They are moderately priced and conveniently sized, making them very easy to drink whether at home or at the gym.
Protein Metabolism
The processes whereby protein foodstuffs are used by the body to make tissue proteins, together with the processes of breakdown of tissue proteins in the production of energy. Food proteins are first broken down into amino acids, then absorbed into the bloodstream, and finally used in body cells to form new proteins. Amino acids in excess of the body's needs may be converted by the liver enzymes into keto acids and urea. The keto acids may be used as sources of energy via the Krebs citric acid cycle, or they may be converted into glucose or fat for storage. Urea is excreted in urine and sweat.
Pump
A commonly used bodybuilding term is "the pump". "The pump" occurs when your muscles swell up beyond their normal size by a considerable amount. Looking at yourself in the mirror, you will look bigger, and likely show appear more vascular and defined as well as being more confident in yourself. This pump is normally fast to achieve and shouldn't take much more than four sets. I find a really good way to pump up is to do pushups until I reach failure, and normally my chest will look bigger than ever. A good pump can be felt and noticed throughout the entire workout if done properly. Oxygen and nutrients will continually to be brought into the area being exercised during intense weight training activity. Blood is forced into the area being exercised but not drawn out. This extra blood stays in there for some period, causing it to swell and appear noticeably bigger. A reason why many people like to pump up before they pose for a picture is to take advantage of this difference in size which occurs. See also Bodybuilder's High
Pump Set
A high - rep set, usually in the range of 15 to 20 repetitions, of a basic exercise which is done after a peak weight has been handled in that movement. Usually a pump set is the last one done on a particular basic movement. A pump set is also sometimes called a down set.

Quadratus Lumborum Muscle
The quadratus lumborum or QL is a common cause of back pain which is to one side and comes on after lifting or twisting.
Quality Training
A type of workout used just prior to a competition in which the lengths of rest intervals between sets are progressively reduced to increase overall training intensity and to help further define the physique.

Recovery Cycle
The process between workouts during which the body flushes out fatigue toxins, restores muscle glycogen, repairs itself, and increases in hypertrophy. The length of this cycle varies from as little as 48 hours to as much as one full week, and perhaps more. Recovery is enhanced by sufficient sleep and proper nutrition.
Rectus Abdominis Muscle
Rectus Abdominis is the most superficial of the abdominal muscles. It is this muscle which forms the six-pack shape!
Rectus Femoris Muscle
The Rectus Femoris muscle is part of the Quadriceps muscle group. It is the only muscle of the group which crosses the hip joint and so it flexes the hip whilst extending the knee.
Rep
The abbreviation of Repetition: This term, which takes on the short form, rep, refers to a single rendition of an exercise. For example, if your curl a barbell through the entire range of motion once, you have completed one repetition (rep) of the movement.
Repetition
This term, which takes on the short form, rep, refers to a single rendition of an exercise. For example, if your curl a barbell through the entire range of motion once, you have completed one repetition (rep) of the movement.
Resistance
The actual amount of weight you are using in any exercise.
Rest Interval
The brief pause lasting between 30 seconds to two minutes, and in some cases even longer, which occurs between sets to allow your body to partially recuperate prior to initiating the succeeding set.
Reverse Anorexia
See Muscle Dismorphia
Rhomboid Muscle
There are two rhomboid muscles - Rhomboid Major and Rhomboid Minor. Rhomboid major is larger and positioned below rhomboid minor.
Ripped
See Cut
Roid Rage
Popular name given to the uncontrolled outburst of anger and violence exhibited by anabolic steroid users. Despite never being proven by the medical community, the term is continuously exaggerated by the mainstream media.
Rope
This attachment is used on a cable machine, and is commonly used for exercises such as rope pulls, or triceps pushdowns.
Routine
The term routine is very broad, and encompasses virtually every aspect of what you do in one weight lifting session, including the type of equipment you use, the number of exercises, sets, and repetitions you perform; the order in which you do the exercises; and how much rest you take between sets. You can change the factors within your routine to change your results.

Sartorius Muscle
The Sartorius is a two joint muscle and so is weak when the knee is flexed and the hip is flexed at the same time. It works better during single movements.
Saturated Fatty Acids
Fat molecules that do not have double bonds between their carbon atoms and are usually solid at room temperature. Saturated fats are considered to play a major role in the development of cardiovascular disease.
Semi-vegetarian
Not a true vegetarian diet; based primarily on plant foods but occasionally including lean, nonred meat.
Semimembranosus Muscle
Semimembranosus is the most medial of the three hamstring muscles. It extends and internally rotates the hip and flexes the knee.
Semitendinosus Muscle
The semitendinosus muscle extends and internally rotates the hip as well as flexing the knee.
Serratus Anterior Muscle
The Serratus Anterior muscle is used in activities which draw the scapula forwards. It is used strongly in push-ups and bench presses.
Set
A set is a group of consecutive repetitions that are performed without resting. When you have completed 8 repetitions of bench press, and have reached temporary muscular failure or put the weights down, you have completed one set. See also Working Set
Shoes
Shoes act to stabilize your balance and improve your balance in training. The design of shoes varies depending on their use, whether it is for running, or outdoor recreational activities, or simply day to day wear. The main quality of shoes, no matter which you choose, is support. Solid, thick soled shoes with good arch support are the best you can choose.
Shotgunning
See Megadosing
Sleeve
The hollow metal tube that fits over the bar on most exercise barbell and dumbbell sets. This sleeve makes it easier for the bar to rotate in your hands as you perform an exercise.
Slow Twitch Muscle Fibers
Red muscle fibers that contract slowly, weakly, and continually for long periods of time. Slow - twitch fibers are developed by light, high - rep weight workouts.
Smith Machine
Another name for a brand of Nautilus machines at the gym which are used to add variety to workouts. They offer many disadvantages, but normally, free weights are preferred.
Smooth Muscle
One of two kinds of muscle, composed of elongated spindle - shaped cells in muscles not under voluntary control, such as the smooth muscle of the intestines, stomach, and other visceral organs. The heart muscle is an exception because it is a striated involuntary muscle. Smooth muscle fibers are shorter than striated muscle fibers and are smooth in appearance. Known also as involuntary muscle of unstriated muscle.
Snake Oil
This is a general term used to describe any supplement or concoction that doesn't give the same degree of results as claimed by its advertisers. It originated with traveling carnivals back in the 1800s.
Soleus Muscle
Soleus is a large large muscle, deep to Gastrocnemius. Together the Gastrocnemius, Soleus and Plantaris are known as Triceps Surae.
Somatotype
The classification of individuals according to body build based on certain physical characteristics. The primary types are ectomorph, mesomorph, and endomorph.
Splenius Muscle
Splenius is often divided into two muscles, splenius capitus (those fibres which insert on the skull) and splenius cervicis (those that insert onto the cervical transverse processes of the spine).
Split Routine
A program in which the body is divided into segments and trained more than three times per week, as most beginners do. The most basic split routine is done four days per week. The most popular type of split routine happens by dividing the body into three parts which are done over three consecutive days, followed by a rest day and a repeat of the routine on day five. This is called a three - on / one - off split.
Spotters
Training partners who stand by to act as safety helpers when you perform heavy lifts in bench press, or squats, as well as other exercises. If you reach the point of temporary muscular failure, your spotter can help you lift the weight up in order to complete the range of motion safely. It is especially important to have a spotter when you are attempted one - rep maximums (1RM).
Stacking
The practice of taking two or more performance - enhancing drugs at one time. The actual drugs, combinations, and dosages are known as a stack.
Static Contractions
A muscle contraction is static when the length of the muscle does not shorten during contraction. All muscle fibers enervated by a single motor nerve fiber from the spinal cord are called motor units, each of which may supply up to 150 or more muscle fibers. The strength of contraction increases in proportion to the number of motor units fired. Although a whole muscle cannot fully contract at once, a single fiber of it contracts fully, never partially, when stimulated by a motor nerve fiber. As the number of contracting motor units increases, the force of contraction increases proportionally. This also occurs when a muscle is tensed without movement. High intensity training over a prolonged period of time improves the ability of a neuro muscular system to recruit a greater number of motor units (volley firing), and thus creates a greater number of muscle fibers to contract.
Static Stretching
Here, you stretch the muscle slowly and gradually and hold the stretch for 10 to 60 seconds. Because the stretch occurs slowly, there is much less reaction from the stretch receptors. Static stretching is the type most often recommended by fitness experts because it is as effective and safer than other types of stretching exercises. The key to this technique is to stretch the muscles and joints to the point where you feel a pull but not to the point of pain. Over stretching the muscle leads to injuries.
Sternocleidomastoid Muscle
Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) can clearly be seen when you turn your head to one side, on the opposite side of the neck.
Steroid
Biochemical term used to denote a molecule having three, 6 carbon - containing rings, and one, 5 - carbon - containing ring. Steroid molecules form the nucleus of many of the body's hormones.
Steroid Hormones
Any of the ductless gland secretions that contain the basic steroid nucleus in their chemical formulae. The natural steroid hormones include the androgens, estrogens, and adrenal cortex secretions.
Steroid Replacer
General term used to describe any naturally occurring substance that supposedly duplicates the effects of anabolic steroids. As of yet, no "steroid replacer" is as effective as any anabolic drug.
Sticking Point
A stalling of bodybuilding progress. Also that point in a movement at which you fail to continue the upward momentum of the bar.
Stimulants
Class of drugs that increase or excite the central nervous system (CNS). Stimulants may be mild (ephedrine), or powerful (amphetamines).
Straight Short Bar
This bar is used in exercises such as the triceps pushdown, as well as biceps exercises such as cable curls. It can also be used for back exercises, and other body parts
Straps
Straps are fastened around your wrists and then twisted around a bar to strengthen your grip in exercises where grip is your weakest link. Hand strength will not develop as quickly if you use straps, but this may be worth the value of being able to lift heavier weights which will result in a better developed back. Weighing the opportunity cost of straps is largely personal preference, and you can achieve great results with or without including them in your regiment of bodybuilding aids.
Stretching
A type of exercise program in which you assume exaggerated postures that stretch muscles, joints, and connective tissues, hold these positions for several seconds, and then relax and repeat the postures. Regular stretching exercise promotes body flexibility and reduces the chance of injuries while training with heavy iron.
Stress
Stress can be defined as anything that causes stress on the body's physical or mental resources. Working out is a great way to reduce your levels of stress caused by day to day living. Lifting weights is a stress on the body that is enjoyable and takes pressures off the other stresses you are undergoing; it is a type of stress you will like to include in your everyday life. Although stress has many negative connotations, the stress which you will undergo in the gym is (almost) enjoyable and, if controlled properly will invoke a positive response in both your physical and mental fitness. If you are mentally or physically stressed in your day to day life away from the gym, it will be more difficult for your body to respond with positive muscle growth. Reducing your levels of stress related to your emotional, financial and work related stresses (as well as others) is essential to maximize gains made in the gym. At the same time, bodybuilding is a method of reducing these stresses, and in very little time with some hard work and dedication you will see your stress levels decrease after taking up recreational bodybuilding.
Stretch Marks
Tiny tears in a bodybuilder's skin caused by poor diet and too rapid increases in body weight. If you notice stretch mark forming on your own body, consult your physician for advice. One solution which has worked for many people is to rub vitamin - E cream over the stretch two of three times per day (unless you are allergic to the cream), and try cutting back on your body weight by reducing body - fat levels. It's much better to add pure muscle mass than excess fat when attempting to gain body weight.
Striated Muscle
Muscle tissue, including all the skeletal muscles, that consists of myofibrils. Striated muscles are composed of bundles of parallel, striated fibers. Each striated muscle is covered by a thin connective epimysium and divided into bundles of sheathed fibers containing smaller myofribrils. The muscle's contractile units, or sarcomeres, comprise the larger protein strands or myofribrils.
Striations
The tiny grooves of muscle across major muscle groups in a highly defined bodybuilder. If you have muscle striations, even when completely relaxed, you know you are in optimum condition.
Subscapularis Muscle
Subscapularis is one of the four rotator cuff muscles which cross the shoulder joint. The muscle also acts to hold the head of the humerus in position and prevents it moving forwards.
Sugar
Any of several water - soluble carbohydrates. The two principal categories of sugards are monosaccharides and disaccharides. A monosaccharide is a single sugar such as glucose, fructose, or galactose. A disaccharide is a doble sugar such as sucrose (table sugar) or lactose.
Supination
You supinate your hand when you turn the palm down.
Supinator Muscle
The Supinator muscle assists Biceps Brachii in supinating the hand, that is turning it over so that the palm faces up.
Supine
Lying horizontally on the back
Supplements
Concentrated vitamins, minerals, and proteins used by bodybuilders to improve the overall quality of their diets. Many bodybuilders believe that food supplements help promote quality muscle growth.
Supraspinatus Muscle
The Supraspinatus muscle is one of the four muscles which make up the rotator cuff. Its main function is to stabilise the upper arm by holding the head of the humerus in position.
Symmetry
The shape or general outline of a person's body, as when seen in silhouette. If you have good symmetry, you will have relatively wide shoulders, flaring lats, a small waist - hip structure, and general small joints.
Synergism
The biochemical phenomenon where two or more drugs interact to produce an effect that is greater than the effects of the individual drugs. In bodybuilding terms, growth hormone and IGF - 1 taken separately produce limited results, but when taken together produce dramatic increases in size and strength.

Temporary Muscular Failure (TMF)
That point an an exercise at which you have so fully fatigued the working muscles that they can no longer complete an additional repetition of a movement with strict form. You should always take your post - warm up sets at least to the point of momentary muscular failure, and frequently past that point. Also known as Failure.
Tendon
The tough tissue that connects muscles to bones.
Tensor Fascia Latae Muscle
The Tensor Fasciae Latae (TFL) is a small muscle which attaches inferiorly to the long thick strip of fascia, known as the iliotibial band (ITB).
Teres Major Muscle
Teres Minor is one of the four rotator cuff muscles surrounding the shoulder. Its main action, along with Infraspinatus is to externally rotate the shoulder joint.
Testosterone
The male hormone primarily responsible for maintenance of muscle mass and strength induced by heavy training. Testosterone is secondarily responsible for developing such secondary male sex characteristics as a deep voice, body and facial hair, and male pattern baldness.
Thermogenesis
Heat production not accounted for by resting metabolic rate or physical activity. Progress by which stored fat is liberated and mobilized so that it can be burned as a fuel source. The most popular bodybuilding thermogenic agents are ephedrine and caffeine. Factors stimulating thermogenesis include food intake, thermogenic substances (such as adrenaline, some drugs, some types of food and some herbs), cold exposure and psychological stress. Thermogenesis normally accounts for around 15% of daily energy expended.
Thoracic Type
See Ectomorph
Thyroid Gland
Small gland located at the neck that controls the body's level of calcium and overall metabolic rate. Bodybuilders often add thyroid drugs to their precontest drug stacks to increase their body's metabolic rate and increase the rate of fat loss.
Tibialis Anterior Muscle
Tibialis anterior forms the main fleshy part of the outside of the shin. It is a dorsiflexor of the ankle.
Tibialis Posterior Muscle
The Tibialis Posterior is the deepest of all the calf muscles. It helps to support the arch of the foot.
Towel
A towel should be part of your essential gym equipment.
Training Partner
A training partner should be someone who is willing to take the time he or she is devoting to bodybuilding, and share it with you. He or she should be willing to make time in his or her schedule to workout with you, as well as offer you constructive advice and a good spot for those hard to perform, heavy lifts. It is very important that both you and your training partner care about the success and development of the pair, and make efforts to motivate and encourage each other into achieving new muscular growth. A training partner who does not have much concern over making it to the gym with you, and helping you out isn't much of a benefit to either of you. A training partner who does not offer you constructive advice isn't really helping you either, if advice is what you are looking for. Also, it is very effective if both you and your training partner are trying to achieve the same bodybuilding goals. This makes it a lot more natural for both of you to help each other with steps along the way to achieving those goals.
Transversus Abdominis Muscle
Transversus Abdominis is often abbreviated to TVA. This is a very important core muscle which is vital in maintaining good posture. Activities such as Pilates focus on contraction of the TVA.
Trapezius Muscle
The trapezius muscle (Trapz) is a large muscle consisting of four parts covering the upper back, shoulders and neck.
Triceps Brachii Muscle
The Triceps Brachii also assists Latissimus Dorsi in extending the shoulder joint. It contracts strongly during the up phase of a push up, to straighten the arm.
Trisets
A series of three exercises performed with not rest between movements and a normal rest interval between trisets. Trisets increase training intensity by reducing the average length of rest interval between sets. As such, trisets are markedly more intense than supersets.

Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Fat molecules which have double bonds between their carbon atoms are usually liquid at room temperature. Generally speaking, as the number of double bonds increase, the fat becomes more oily in nature.
Unstriated Muscle
See Smooth Muscle

Vascularity
A prominence of veins and arteries over the muscles and beneath the skin of a well - defined bodybuilder. Vascularity can be enhanced by properly carbing up prior to appearence onstage at a competition.
Vastus Intermedius Muscle
Vastus Intermedius is one of four quadricep muscles, located deep in the thigh underneath the Rectus Femoris muscle.
Vastus Lateralis Muscle
Vastus Lateralis is the most lateral (outer) of the four quadriceps muscles and is felt on the outside top of the thigh.
Vastus Medialis Muscle
Vastus Medialis is the most medially (inner) located of the quadricep muscles. The portion of the muscle just above the knee is known as VMO (vastus medialis oblique).
Vegan
A diet excluding all foods from animals, in any form. Items such as milk, cheese, and eggs are excluded.
Vitamin
Organic compound used by the body to regulate metabolism. Vitamins may be water - based or fat - based.
Volume Training
The use of very high number sets for each bodypart. The high volume of a workout necessitates the use of lighter - than - normal weights in each exercise, but it does build muscle in some individuals.

Warm Up
Before you pick up any weights, even a two pound dumbbell, you should always remember to warm up. You can do this by taking five easy minutes on the aerobic exercise machine. Warm ups increase the temperature of your muscles, making them more pliable and less susceptible to injury. If you plan to so a particularly heavy workout, such as a powerlifting routine, you should warm up for 10 minutes prior to attempting that kind of poundage. Various warm ups may include one of the following activities Walking, jogging, stair climbing, stationary biking, aerobic rowing machine cross country ski machine doing many repetitions with the empty bar (bench press, military press). 10 to 15 minute session of light calisthenics, aerobic activity, and stretching taken prior to handling heavy bodybuilding training movements. A good warm - up helps prevent injuries and actually allows you to get more our of your training than if you went into a workout totally cold.
Water Bottle
You will need more water if you begin a weight training program, especially on the days you are working out, and even more importantly, during your actual workouts. A water bottle is a must.
WBF
The World Bodybuilding Federation, founded in 1990 to offer competition for bodybuilders not interested in the IFBB system.
Weight
The same as poundage or resistance.
Weight Class
In order for bodybuilders to compete against men and women or similar size, the IFBB has instituted weight divisions for all amateur competitions. The normal men's weight classes are under 70 kilograms (154 pounds), under 80 kilograms (175 pounds), under 90 kilograms (198 pounds), and over 90 kilograms (over 198 pounds, term "heavyweight"). In a minority of competitions, particularly in the Far East, one additional class, under 65 kilograms (143 pounds) is also contested. Women compete in three weight classes, under 114 pounds, under 123 pounds, and over 123 pounds.
Weight Lifting
The competitive form of weight training in which each athlete attempts to lift as much as he or she can in well - defined exercises. Olympic lifting and power lifting are the two types of weight - lifting competition.
Weight Training
An umbrella term used to categorize all acts of using resistance training. Weight training can be used to improve the body, to rehabilitate injuries, to improve sports conditioning, or as a competitive activity in terms of bodybuilding and weight lifting.
Weight Training Log
Recording your workouts in a weight training log is a good idea. It keeps you motivated, and helps you to assess your goals frequently.
Working Set
The set(s) you perform after finishing a warm up or stretching.
Workout
A bodybuilding or weight - training session.
Wraps
Wraps are used to support weak or injured joints or muscles. Wraps are used around the knees for weight training athletes performing heavy squats, or around the elbows during bench press.